Biodiversity growth and extinction
Marine invertebrates also have both positive and negative impacts on humans. The second, larger wave began 10, years ago as the discovery of agriculture caused a population boom and a need to plow wildlife habitats, divert streams, and maintain large herds of domestic cattle. The insufficient number of adequately trained scientists makes the preparation of even simple inventories very difficult. Looking ahead, the big challenge is the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biodiversity in China, which will set the next set of targets for the next decade. Little is being done to investigate the enormous numbers of legume species that exist in the tropics: 6, can be found in Latin America alone; of these, an estimated 2, or more are threatened with extinction as the forests of Latin America are degraded and disappear. Negative trends in nature will continue to and beyond in all of the policy scenarios explored in the Report, except those that include transformative change — due to the projected impacts of increasing land-use change, exploitation of organisms and climate change, although with significant differences between regions. How does biodiversity impact sustainable development? Lange's metalmark butterfly from Amy Harwood. Some 9, species of fish are currently exploited for food, although only 22 are harvested in significant quantities on a global scale WRI, Because research on the biology of microorganisms, especially bacteria, involves so much biochemical experimentation, it is expensive. For example, at least one-sixth of the Earth's diversity of plant life—45, species—can be found in Latin America in Ecuador, Peru, and Colombia, which constitute an area about one-third the size of the contiguous United States. Together with initiatives at various levels these have contributed to expanding and strengthening the current network of ecologically representative and well-connected protected area networks and other effective area-based conservation measures, the protection of watersheds and incentives and sanctions to reduce pollution. In comparison to other taxonomic groups, there are few undescribed species of reptiles, birds, and mammals.
Invertebrates such as corals and some mollusks can substantially modify the physical structure of the marine environment by building reefs. So where does wildlife stand today in relation to 7. The crux of the report is that incessant economic growth is fundamentally at odds with the survival of life.
Species extinction due to overpopulation
More importantly, it is the first mass extinction event that has been caused by a single species—one that we now hope will act, if for no other reason than its own self-interest, to stem the tide NSB, Some invertebrates e. Few recognized the fundamental need to consider environmental effects and prevent environmental degradation at all stages of development. Worldwide, 12 percent of mammals, 12 percent of birds, 31 percent of reptiles, 30 percent of amphibians, and 37 percent of fish are threatened with extinction . The conservation of biological diversity is not merely an obscure, hitherto neglected area of endeavor whose importance has only now been discovered; rather, it is a fundamental concern that has been absent in short-term development planning, at the risk of long-term social and economic well-being. Not enough plants and invertebrates have been assessed to determine their global threat level, but it is severe. Current estimates of the Earth's total species diversity range from 10 million to million Wilson, ; Ehrlich and Wilson, ; Erwin, The invertebrates of tropical rivers, immense in their variety, are largely unstudied because of the shortage of trained taxonomic experts. Our local, indigenous and scientific knowledge are proving that we have solutions and so no more excuses: we must live on earth differently. Thus, as Wilson has pointed out, we do not know even to within the nearest order of magnitude the number of species on the planet. National biological inventories, for example, could well be funded by pooling the resources of all international assistance agencies functioning within a given country.
There may be twice as many species in Costa Rica, which is about the size of West Virginia, as have been named for the entire tropics of the world Latin America, Asia, and Africa combined.
Unlike these currently threatened species, or those whose fate is now part of the geologic record, human beings can decide not to choose extinction. Vertebrates As a group, vertebrates have been more thoroughly studied than most other organisms.
The Earth's biota is experiencing its greatest episode of species loss since the end of the Cretaceous Era 65 million years ago. Thomas Lovejoy: Biodiversity is the collective term for the full variety of life on earth. What is lost, economically, from destroying nature is missing from balance sheets.
Furthermore, money alone is not the answer. Agricultural activities are also some of the largest contributors to human emissions of greenhouse gases.
December 7, Many types of microorganisms can cause disease in plants and animals. Research must focus on river systems prior to development if any accurate characterization is to be made of their biological diversity, ecosystem functions, and hydrological dynamics.
based on 4 review