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World meaning

Because the semantic properties of words depend on the relations they entertain with other expressions in the same lexical system, word meanings cannot be studied in isolation. Lexical Field Theory. Our focus in this entry will be on semantic theories of word meaning, i. However, in about the same years Travis and Searle , pointed out that the semantic relevance of context might be much more pervasive, if not universal: intuitively, the same sentence type could have very different truth conditions in different contexts, though no indexical expression or structure appeared to be involved. But what is relevant here is informative power: to one who understands the metalanguage of V3 , i. Construed as theorems of a semantic theory, T-biconditionals were often accused of being uninformative Putnam ; Dummett : to understand them, one has to already possess the information they are supposed to provide. One of the most prolific areas of change and variation in English is vocabulary; new words are constantly being coined to name or describe new inventions or innovations, or to better identify aspects of our rapidly changing world. The mentalistic component of Katzian semantics is twofold. She gave the word to begin.

Decompositional Frameworks. B: Kim had breakfast.

Dictionary meaning

A lexical field is a set of semantically related words whose meanings are mutually interdependent and which together spell out the conceptual structure of a given domain of reality. According to Ludlow , for example, the fact that word meaning is systematically underdetermined a semantic matter can be explained in part by looking at the processes of linguistic negotiation whereby discourse partners converge on the assignment of shared meanings to the words of their language a foundational matter. Historical Background The study of word meaning became a mature academic enterprise in the 19th century, with the birth of historical-philological semantics Section 2. Second, it looked at word meaning primarily as a psychological phenomenon. The lawyer used Joe's words against him. Tarski had shown how to provide a definition of the truth predicate for a formal language L: such a definition is materially adequate i. By contrast, Davidson suggested that if one took the notion of truth for granted, then T-biconditionals could be read as collectively constituting a theory of meaning for L, i. Unfortunately, few of such extensions were ever spelled out by Davidson or his followers. Others sided with Putnam and the externalist account: for example, Kornblith pointed out that artifactual kinds from an ancient civilization could be re-baptized in total ignorance of their function. Katzian semantics combined componential analysis with a mentalistic conception of word meaning and developed a method for the description of lexical phenomena in the context of a formal grammar. So the sentence is true both in the carton case and in the patch case; it would be false only if the fridge did not contain any amount of any kind of milk whether cow milk or goat milk or elephant milk. Philosophy of Language In this section we shall review some semantic and metasemantic theories in analytic philosophy that bear on how lexical meaning should be conceived and described.

However, he did not specify the format in which word senses should be expressed in a semantic theory, except for words that could be defined e.

Indeed, this is definitional for lexical meaning: word meanings are the kind of things which, if one puts enough of them together in the right sort of way, then what one gets is propositional content Borg And how could individual sentences be understood if the information required to understand them exceeded the capacity of human working memory?

Word meaning list

However, Tarski made no attempt nor felt any need to represent semantic differences among expressions belonging to the same logical type e. We will wait for your word before we serve dinner. According to Ludlow , for example, the fact that word meaning is systematically underdetermined a semantic matter can be explained in part by looking at the processes of linguistic negotiation whereby discourse partners converge on the assignment of shared meanings to the words of their language a foundational matter. Obviously, the endorsement of a given semantic theory is bound to place important constraints on the claims one might propose about the foundational attributes of word meaning, and vice versa. Send us feedback. In Montague semantics, such inferences are taken care of by supplementing the theory with suitable Carnapian meaning postulates. Carnap regarded the two options as equivalent; nowadays, the former is usually preferred. Lacking such descriptions, possible worlds semantics is not really a theory of meaning but a theory of logical form or logical validity. However, such negative views form an equally integral part of the philosophical debate on word meaning. Visit the Thesaurus for More What makes a word a real word? Tarski had shown how to provide a definition of the truth predicate for a formal language L: such a definition is materially adequate i. One of the most prolific areas of change and variation in English is vocabulary; new words are constantly being coined to name or describe new inventions or innovations, or to better identify aspects of our rapidly changing world. Other contributions to this debate can be found, a. Linguistics The emergence of modern linguistic theories of word meaning is usually placed at the transition from historical-philological semantics Section 2.

There is another form of externalism that does apply to all or most words of a language: social externalism Burgethe view on which the meaning of a word as used by an individual speaker depends on the semantic standards of the linguistic community the speaker belongs to.

The lawyer used Joe's words against him.

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Before proceeding further, let us then elucidate the notion of word in more detail Section 1. Historical Background The study of word meaning became a mature academic enterprise in the 19th century, with the birth of historical-philological semantics Section 2.

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Philosophy of Language In this section we shall review some semantic and metasemantic theories in analytic philosophy that bear on how lexical meaning should be conceived and described. Montague semantics can be represented as aiming to capture the inferential structure of a natural language: every inference that a competent speaker would regard as valid should be derivable in the theory. Examples of word in a Sentence Noun How do you spell that word? And how could individual sentences be understood if the information required to understand them exceeded the capacity of human working memory? But what is relevant here is informative power: to one who understands the metalanguage of V3 , i. More on speculative etymology in Malkiel , Fumaroli , and Del Bello Oedipus married Jocasta because he thought he was marrying the queen of Thebes, not his mother, though as a matter of fact Jocasta was his mother. The mentalistic component of Katzian semantics is twofold. Second, the psychologistic approach to word meaning fostered by historical philological-semantics added to the agenda of linguistic research the question of how word meaning relates to cognition at large.

Second, it looked at word meaning primarily as a psychological phenomenon.

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Word Meaning (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)