Realist and liberalist perspectives of globalization essay

Realist and liberalist perspectives of globalization essay

Conversely, de-globalization accompanies a decline in power of the strongest state, not necessarily in absolute terms, but relative to other states. Ideational aspects of social relations also are not outcome of the modes of production. Asian developmental states of the twentieth century, such as Japan and South Korea, consequently sought to curtail inward FDI Amsden, ; Johnson, Often they do not care for the entrenched power hierarchies between states, classes, cultures, sexes, races and resources. The latter reinforced support of right-wing nationalist groups linking globalization to unwelcome immigration Rodrik, , which seems to have played a role in the Brexit vote of Power theorists also neglect the importance and role of other actors in generating globalisation. In this way, western rationalism overawes indigenous cultures and other non-modem life-worlds. Until the present, professors still speak of the motto from the work of Thomas Hobbes, entitled Leviathan, that speaks of the state of nature being prone to what Hobbes calls bellum omnium contra omnes or the war of all against all Hobbes : De Cive, and Leviathan, , as well as Francis Fukuyama naming Western liberal democracy as the final form of human government Fukuyama : The End of History and the Last Man, As a result the forces of change can seriously affect the attitudes, beliefs and behaviors of individuals. For IB research, with MNE activities as one central theme, liberalism and realism thus open up large, but different, questions about the relationship between MNEs and the political context that enables them. The larger the differences, the greater the transaction costs of operating across spheres of influence would be if such cross-sphere activities were condoned by the two hegemons, which in the Cold War they were not.

Modern rationalism produces a society overwhelmed with economic growth, technological control, bureaucratic organisation, and disciplining desires. Liberalism, in stark contrast to realism, believes in the measurement of power through state economies, the possibility of peace and cooperation, as well as the concepts of political freedoms, rights and the like.

Their main concern lies behind the status of women, particularly their structural subordination to men. In particular, countries need to acquire sufficient military power to defend themselves against other countries.

similarities between realism and liberalism

Some benefits of specialization may be lost, and some specialized clusters dependent on supplying the Global Factory may decline see Buckley, Theory of Political Realism: Advocates of this theory are interested in questions of state power, the pursuit of national interest, and conflict between states.

Overall, the picture drawn by liberalism is consistent with de-globalization.

Realism and globalization

Realism at first glance seems to rule out that MNE agency could be significant, as domestic politics, and thus the activities of actors such as firms, are irrelevant in the theory. The main objective of foreign policy is thus forced on countries by the structure of the international system, and countries permitting themselves to get distracted from the objective of survival by domestic-level political concerns risk their survival. The first is for the institutional infrastructure supporting globalization to lose its ability to support openness. The discussion in this paper suggests that the international political context underpinning globalization is in fact endogenous to IB. Outcomes Both approaches would thus expect de-globalization under the present conditions. What is the central theme of each? However, Marxists give an overly restricted account of power. Realists argue that imposing military force is one way to achieve hegemony for a state, and thus it is not a surprise that Iran, a marginalized country that has continually been in conflict with the United States, has developed nuclear weapons

To the extent that this change of interests is not uniform across countries — which is probably a realistic assumption — the most likely outcome is a globalization patchwork in which different pairs or groups of countries provide for varying levels of interdependence between them. There are various names that they are called, and they can also be split further into subdivisions.

liberalism international relations essay

The first issue is what are the main actors involved in economic relations according to liberals, realists and Marxists approaches. Obviously, postmodernism suffers from its own methodological idealism.

which is better realism or liberalism
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Realist and Liberalist Perspectives of Globalization Essay